傳道書 第七章 勸勉 I.-IV.

                                     第七章 勸 勉

  I. 善用智慧(10:1-7):
     (I) 智勝於愚(10:1-4):
           詩云:
1                          死蠅使香膏發臭,                          As dead flies give perfume a bad smell,
                            愚昧也壓倒智榮.                      so a little folly outweighs wisdom and honor.
2                            智者之心偏右,                         The heart of the wise inclines to the right,
                              愚人之心偏左.                               but the heart of the fool to the left.
3                          愚人即使路上行,                Even as he walks along the road, the fool lacks sense
                            也顯得愚昧無知.                            and shows everyone how stupid he is.
4                          君王若向你發怒,                              If a ruler's anger rises against you,
                            站穩崗位不擅離.                                       do not leave your post;
                            鎮定才能糾大錯.                             calmness can lay great errors to rest.
        解說:
       傳道者再舉例論智愚之分: 死蒼蠅掉入香膏, 必使膏油污穢發臭, 在世上亦如是, 愚昧壓倒
智慧與尊榮; 智愚有別, 二者方向相反, 右表正確方向, 左表錯誤方向, 心指理性所在, 故智愚之分
不在外表的行為, 而在內心理性動機, 故有 "智者之心偏右, 愚人之心偏左." 之說; 愚人心地不正,
行為偏左錯誤, 即使在路上行走, 也難掩飾其愚昧無知.
       傳道者續勸告智者, 他們不乏被當權者延攬為謀臣策士, 伴君如伴虎, 稍一不慎觸怒人君,
性命不保, 當權者多係自以為是的愚人, 智者碰到他惱羞成怒, 大發雷霆時, 仍要堅持立場, 站穩
崗位, 不可動搖, 更不要賭氣離開, 要極力鎮定, 以柔和的心, 化戾氣為和祥, 糾正人君愚昧錯誤,
實現自己理想抱負, 才是智者成熟老練, 展現智慧的上策.

       (II) 主僕易位(10:5-7):
               詩云:
5                       我見日光之下一禍害,                    There is an evil I have seen under the sun,
                         出於當權者犯的錯誤:                      the sort of error that arises from a ruler:
6                             愚人居高職,                                Fools are put in many high positions,
                               富人佔低位.                                 while the rich occupy the low ones.
7                    我也見過奴僕威風騎馬上,                          I have seen slaves on horseback,
                            王子如奴地上行.                              while princes go on foot like slaves.
        解說:
        傳道者又發現日光之下一罪惡, 世上當權者多屬愚人, 愚昧無知, 易犯錯誤, 尤其是在司法
行政方面, 任意妄為, 不公不義, 貽禍蒼生. 此外, 當權者往往用人欠當, "愚人居高職" 既不正常
又不合理,, 試想愚人那有才能治理? 一朝權在手, 更不可一世, 濫權枉法, 為禍大矣! 至於富人,
此處不定是指家財萬貫的暴發戶, 應是出身尊貴的社會賢達, 各有專才, 當權者非但不加重用,
反居低位, 未能人盡其才, 實屬不當.
        傳道者更進一步指出世上非常不正常現象, 一如箴言所說的, "愚人不宜奢華度日, 何況
奴僕轄制親王?"(箴19:10), "有三樣事使大地震動, 連地擔不起的共四樣: 奴僕成王, 愚人飽食,
醜女出嫁, 婢奪主位."(箴30:21-23), 他也看到類似情形, "奴僕威風騎馬上, 王子如奴地上行."
這些現象有違社會常規, 主僕易位, 社會混亂, 不得安寧, 易滋大禍.

 II. 衷心勸勉(10:8-11):
       詩云:
8                         挖坑者自掉坑中,                            Whoever digs a pit may fall into it;
                           拆牆者會被蛇咬.           whoever breaks through a wall may be bitten by a snake.
9                         採石者被石打傷.                Whoever quarries stones may be injured by them;
                           劈木者被木壓倒.                Whosever splits logs may be endangered by them.
10                         倘斧鈍沒磨利,                       If the ax is dull and its edge un sharppened,
                             用力需更加大;                                     more strength is needed;
                             用技巧輕易成.                                    but skill will bring success.
11                         弄蛇前蛇咬人,                            If a snake bites before it is charmed,
                            弄蛇人無得益.                                there is no profit for the charmer.
        解說:
        傳道者觀察入微, 看見日常工作若不慎, 易生工傷, 挖坑者原為捕獸, 一不小心, 跌落深坑,
自己受害; 拆牆者說不定會被蛇咬; 採石者會被石打傷; 箴言也有類似的警告, "挖坑的必自陷其中,
滾石的必滾到自身."(箴26:27). 此外, 劈木者劈木亦有危險, 很易被木頭壓倒; 伐木者斧鈍沒磨利,
則需用更大力氣, 諺云: "欲善其工, 先利其器." 足見工具良窳, 影響工作效力至大, 只要善用技巧,
凡事迎刃而解, 定必成功勝利.
        最後, 傳道者又以弄蛇人為例, 弄蛇人應先以笛聲將蛇調教好, 使馴服聽指揮, 隨笛聲起舞,
受到完全控制; 否則就會失控咬人, 甚至咬弄蛇人自己, 則毫無益處, 大大不妙.

III. 智慧省思(10:12-25):
      (I) 智愚言語(10:12-15):
            詩云:
12                       智者口中出美言;                     Words from a wise man's mouth are gracious,
                           愚人口舌傷己身,                            but a fool is consumed by his own lips.
13                       愚人話初時愚昧,                               At the beginning his word are folly;
                           到末了瘋狂邪惡;                            at the end they are wicked madness -
14                       因愚人多言多語.                                   and the fool multiplies words.

                           無人能夠知未來,                                   No one knows what is coming -
                           誰能說出身後事?                       who can tell him what will happen after him?

15                    工作使愚人疲累不堪,                                    A fool's work wearies him;
                        連進城之路也攪不清.                            he does not know the way to town.
         解說:
         由人的言語, 智愚立判, 智者口出美言, "有智慧就有生命泉."(箴16:22), 故能以恩慈之心,
說出美言, 使人喜悅; 愚人因口舌而亡, 因 "愚人嘴口自取滅亡, 唇舌成其生命網羅."(箴18:7),
愚人多言多語, 初時愚昧無知, 末了瘋狂邪惡 故愚人的話, 頗具毀滅性, 傷人害己, 招致滅亡,
足為殷鑑. 傳道者最後又想到人人難逃的死亡, 因之特提醒世人, 無人能知未來, 誰能說出
身後事? ,
       (II) 邦國禍福(10:16-17):
              詩云:
16                   列國啊, 你們的王若是孩童,                                       Woe to you,
                            他的臣子早晨宴樂,                            O land whose king was a servant
                                你們就有禍了!                         and whose princes feast in the morning.
17                 列國啊, 你們的王若是出身貴族,                                 Blessed are you,
                              他的臣子按時飲食,                     O land whose king was is of noble birth
                              是為體力非為酗酒.                     and whose princes eat at a proper time -
                                  你們就有福了!                          for strength and not for drunkenness.

18                         人若懶惰, 樑必倒塌;                           If a man is lazy, the rafters sag;
                             手若懶散, 屋必滴漏.                       if his hands are idle, the house leaks.
        解說:
        傳道者轉論邦國禍福, 政治智慧. 一國之王若是孩童, 不-定是孩童, 而是指年幼無知, 缺乏
經驗, 不知如何統御文武百官, 勵精圖治, 致朝綱不振, 政風敗壞, 群臣不務朝政, 清晨即酗酒宴樂,
誤國誤民, 國勢必衰, 終至滅亡, 禍哉! 禍哉!
反之, 一國之王若是出自皇室貴族, 自幼即受良好教養薰陶, 深諳治國經邦之道, 登基為王,
必能君臨天下, 統御群臣, 循規蹈矩, 勤政愛民, 百官若按時飲食, 體健身強, 自能專心政務, 輔佐
明君, 再則不酗酒亂性, 方能應付繁忙政務, 造福全民, 福哉! 福哉!

        最後, 傳道者認為, 明君賢臣不足強國, 尚需百姓勤奮配合, 方能奏效, 因為 "人若懶惰, 樑必
倒塌; 手若懶散, 屋必滴漏." 值得警惕.

       (III) 善用錢財(10:19):
                詩云:
19                            宴樂促歡笑,                                  A feast is made for laughter,
                                美酒增喜樂,                                   and wine makes life merry,
                                錢財解萬事.                          but money is the answer for everything.
        解說:
        本段與上文並不關連, 傳道者重提前文論述過的三椿事: 第一, 宴樂: 宴樂促歡笑, 宴席上
山珍海味, 美食佳餚, 都是神賜恩典, 要盡情享受, 身心愉悅; 第二, 飲酒: 酒使人興奮快樂, 美酒
更使人飄飄欲仙, 快活無窮, 也要謝神恩典, 盡情去享受; 第三, 錢財: 享盛宴, 飲美酒, 都要花錢,
雖然說金錢萬惡, 但若要享受生活, 非錢不可. 此外, 金錢亦萬能, 錢財能解萬事, 故要謹慎妥善
運用錢財, 要財為我用, 不為財奴.
        (IV) 勿亂咒罵(10:20):
                詩云:
20                       心中不可辱罵君王,                      Do not revile the king even in your thoughts,
                           臥室不可咒詛財主;                              or curse the rich in your bedroom,
                           因空中飛鳥會傳話,                    because a bird of the air may carry your words,
                           有翅的鳥兒會述說.                    and a bird on the wing may report what you say.
        解說:
        傳道者勸誡世人, 要謹慎言語口舌, 勿明處批評論斷, 暗中閒言饒舌, "心中不可辱罵君王,
臥室不可咒詛財主." 因若要人不知, 除非勿亂言, 空中飛鳥會傳話述說, 隱瞞不了.

 IV. 世事無常(11:1-6):
       (I) 儲糧防災(11:1-2):
             詩云:
1                           將你的糧種撒水上,                             Cast your bread upon the waters,
                             日子久了必能回收.                       for after many days you will find it again.
2                           而且要分成七八份,                           Give portions to seven, yes to eight,
                             因為你不知在地上                              for you do not know what disaster
                             將要發生甚麼災禍.                                    may come upon the land.
        解說:
        傳道者改以自然現象: 風水雲雨, 地土樹木, 撒種栽植等, 以智慧言語, 勸勉世人, 說明世事
無常, 神意難測, 無力改變, 故應敬畏順服神, 內心有智慧, 行為有信心, 方能順神應人, 平安喜樂.
首先, 他要世人撒種耕作, 收成入倉後, 不可完全吃光, 要分成七份或八份, 儲存防災, 因為
無人能知地上要發生甚麼災禍.
       (II) 順神耕耘(11:3-6):
              詩云:
3                              雲若充滿水氣,                                   If clouds are full of water,
                                雨必傾盆下地.                                they pour rain upon the earth.
                               樹無論倒南倒北,                 Whether a tree falls to the south or to the north,
                               倒在那裏躺那裏.                       in the place where it falls, there will it lie.
4                               望風的不栽種,                         Whoever watches the wind will not plant;
                                 看雲的不收割.                         whoever looks at the clouds will not reap.

5                              你不知風吹路向,                        As you do not know the path of the wind,
                                一如你不知胎兒                                    or how the body is formed
                                在母體如何形成;                                        in a mother's womb;
                                照樣你也不了解                         so you cannot understand the work of God,
                                創造萬物神作為.                                       the maker of all things.
6                              你早晨出去撒種,                                  Sow your seed in the morning,
                                直至黃昏不歇手,                         and at evening let not your hands be idle,
                                因為你不會知道                            for you do not know which will succeed,
                                那一樣可種得成,                                         whether this or that,
                                或者兩樣都種成.                             or whether both will do equally well.
       解說:
       1. 順天耕耘(11:3-4):
           傳道者以大自然雲與樹勸勉世人, 暴雨前的密雲, 充滿水氣, 不久必下傾盆大雨, 影響
農耕, 農夫定時耕作, 望風看雲, 栽種收割, 方得飽足; 至於樹, -旦狂風暴雨來襲, 折斷傾倒, 在所
難免, 結果無論向南倒或向北倒, 祗好順其自然, 倒在那裏, 就躺那裏, 這是必然, 無人能改.
栽種望風向, 才能順利播種; 收割看雲霓, 方得安然入倉. 但要找合適天時, 著重完美,
就會畏首畏尾, 猶豫不決, 拖延時日, 影響行動, 等待明日, 明日復明日, 磋跎歲月, 那有栽種收割?
凡事不容因循, 考慮太多, 坐失良機; 必需按神定時秩序行事, 方能五穀豐收, 無往不利.
       2. 神意難明(11:5):
           風向無定, 捉摸不定, 無人能知風吹路向; 胎兒在母體內如何形成發育, 這是奧秘, 因
這是創造萬物之神的作為, 我們凡人不知道, 也永難了解.
       3. 勤奮不懈(11:6):
           最後, 傳道者催促世人勿遲疑懶惰, 要劍及履及, 採取行動, 早晨要撒種, 黃昏不歇手,
晨昏不息, 要時刻殷勤努力, 不疏懶怠惰, 因你播種栽植, 不知那樣種得成, 那樣種不成, 或樣樣
都茂盛豐收, 故每一行動都應符合神的作為, 勤奮不懈, 才能看出預期美仔好的成果.

      (III) 珍惜青春(11:7-10):
               詩云:
7                          光最是甜美宜人,                                          Light is sweet,
                            眼見艷陽真可喜.                        and it pleases the eyes to see the sun.
8                          人無論活得多久,                         However many years a man may live,
                            都要盡情去享受;                                     let him enjoy them all.
                            但毋忘黑暗日子,                     But let him remember the days of darkness,
                            因這日子會很多;                                      for they will be many.
                            要來日子都虛空.                            Everything to come is meaningless.

9                    少年人啊! 年青時要快樂,                  Be happy, young man, while you are young,
                               年青的日子                                   and let your heart give you joy
                               心中要歡暢.                                         in the days of your youth.
                               順著心所欲                                      Follow the ways of your heart
                               眼所見去行;                                      and whatever your eyes see,
                               但你要知道                                    but know that for all these things
                               神必審判你.                                   God will bring you to judgement.
10                       故要除去心中愁煩,                        So then, banish anxiety from your heart
                           也要擺脫肉體疾苦,                          and cast off the troubles of your body,
                           因青春活力皆虛空.                           for youth and vigor are meaningless.
        解說:
        1. 享受人生(11:7-8):
            聖經中常作光暗對比, 傳道者以新的觀點看世事, 光是甜美的, 甘甜如蜜; 光照亮寰宇,
光輝耀目, 眼見艷麗陽光, 自然賞心悅目. 光亦可指生命, 與下節黑暗指死亡相輝映. 他鼓勵人要
有生命的熱望, 有生之年, 也就是神賜的時日, 無論人活多久, 都要盡情享受; 但毋忘黑暗的日子,
因日後黑暗的日子會很多, 要來的必來, 且日漸逼近, 然而世人毫無準備, 也不明白, 都是虛空.
        2. 年青享樂(11:9-10):
           "少年人啊! 年青時要快樂." 這是古時格言, 要人趁年青及時行樂, 但非享樂主義口號,
而是提醒世人, 把握青春歲月, 不可虛擲光陰, 年青的日子心中要歡暢, 凡事順心所欲, 依眼所見
去行; 然而, 享樂亦有危害, 故應知道人必須為自己的行為負責, 向神交帳, 因日後神必審判.
因此, 年青享樂之時, 應保持內心純真, 不可放縱情慾, 除去心中愁煩, 擺脫肉體疾苦,
方能真正把握青春, 及時行樂, 享受神賜恩典, 討神喜悅. 然而, 歲月無情, 青春短暫, 稍縱即逝,
轉眼成空, 都是虛空!

      (IV) 當記念主(12:1-8):
              詩云:
1                         在你年青的日子,                                    Remember your creator
                           當記念創造的主;                                   in the days of your youth,
2                         勿等到苦難日子,                              before the days of trouble come
                           到那時你就會說:                      and the years approach when you will say,
                          "我毫無歡樂歲月."                                 "I find no pleasure in them." -
                           也勿到太陽陽光,                                   before the sun and the light
                           月亮星星都變暗,                           and the moon and the stars grow dark,
                           以及雨後雲回時.                              and the clouds return after the rain.

3                           當看房的發抖,                             when the keepers of the house tremble,
                             彪形壯漢彎腰,                                       and the strong men stoop,
                             推磨人少停工,                         when the grinders cease because they are few,
                             窗外漸漸昏暗;                       and those looking through the windows grow dim;
4                           朝街大門關閉,                               when the doors to the street are closed
                             推磨之聲停息;                                     and the sound of grinding fades;
                             人聞鳥鳴起身,                                when men rise up at the sound of birds,
                             鳴聲漸漸轉弱;                                        but all their songs grow faint;
5                             人怕登高處,                                        when men are afraid of heights
                               上街懼凶險;                                          and of dangers in the streets;
                               杏樹花開盛,                                        when the almond tree blossoms
                               蚱蜢蹣跚行,                                 and the grasshopper drags himself along
                               激情不再時;                                          and desire no longer is stirred.
                               人歸永遠家,                                      Then man goes to his eternal home
                               弔喪滿街行.                                       and mourners go about the streets.
6                             銀鍊折斷前,                                         before the silver cord is severed,
                               金碗破裂時;                                            or the golden bowl is broken;
                               水罐泉旁碎,                                    before pitcher is shattered at the spring,
                               水輪井邊破;                                          or the wheel broken at the well,
7                             塵土終歸地,                               and the dust returns to the ground it came from,
                               靈回主懷前                                      and the spirit returns to God who gave it.
                            你們都要紀念主!                                                      Remember him!

                        傳道者說: "虛空的虛空,                        "Meaningless! Meaningless!" says the teacher,
                               凡事都是虛空!"                                          "Everything is meaningless!"
        解說:
        傳道書接近尾聲, 12:1-8 乃最難解的一段經文, 和合本分段及中譯均有進一步商榷之必要,
經誦讀再三, 大膽重新分段改譯, 似較有條理, 辭意明晰; 傳道者主要是勸人毋忘記念創造的主,
說明如下:
        1. 年青記念(12:1-2):
            傳道者首先以 "當記念創造的主!" 教導年青人, 要年青人趁青春煥發, 體壯身強之日,
及早承認神是創造的主, 也是維持生命的主, 不要等到苦難的日子, 也就是黑暗死亡之時才醒悟,
死亡隨時會來臨, 人不一定到老才會死, 因此即使年青也要及早作準備, 這是傳道者的緊急呼召.
所以要趁年青的日子, 記念創造的主; 不要等到在苦難的日子, 覺得毫無歡樂的歲月, 才紀念主;
也不要等到太陽和陽光, 月亮和星星都變暗, 及雨後雲回時, 才去記念.
        2. 逆境紀念(12:3-5):
            傳道者以隱喻的方式描述老年, 特別提醒年老體衰, 逆境中更要紀念主. 看房的發抖,
壯漢彎腰, 乃喻人體衰老, 面對死亡. 推磨人少停工, 窗外漸漸昏暗, 應指家有喪事, 推磨婢女為
喪事忙碌, 以致磨房停工, 悲痛使窗外顯得昏暗哀傷; 亦因為家中舉喪, 朝街大門關閉, 推磨之聲
停息; 家人哀痛, 不得好眠, 聞鳥鳴即起, 鳴聲漸弱, 不再見歡樂之聲, 合家籠罩昏暗哀傷中. 人老
體衰, 行走困難, 尤怕登高處, 力不從心; 街上人車處處, 上街懼凶險, 不安全; 傳道人由人世塵囂
轉向自然景色, 杏樹花開盛, 杏花多在冬日盛開, 似係指年老髮白如杏花; 大自然冬去春來, 百花
齊開, 萬象更新, 但人生卻非如此, 死亡是終結, 冬去春不再來. 蚱蜢蹣跚行, 蚱蜢在舊約中象徵
毀壞, 乃災禍之源, 當蚱蜢滿地, 蹣跚而行, 為害大矣! 當激情不再, 人歸永遠家, 走向墳墓, 弔喪
的人滿街行時, 別忘了, 要紀念主.
        3. 亡前紀念(12:6-7):
             最後, 傳道者勸勉世人時時要紀念主, 年青和逆境時, 固然要記念創造的主, 即使死亡
之前, 也毋忘紀念主. 至銀鍊折斷, 金碗破裂; 水罐泉旁碎, 水輪井邊破; 這二椿事都表毀損破壞,
生命走到盡頭的悽涼景象, 一旦死亡, 塵土歸地, 靈回主懷之前, 更要紀念創造的主!
傳道者總結, 世事如斯, "虛空的虛空, 凡事都是虛空."